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# Physics Formula sheet

## I. UNIT PREFIXES

Giga (G)- 1 billion or 109
Mega (M)- 1 million or 106
kilo (k)- 1 thousand or 103
centi (c) - 1 hundreth or 10-2
milli (m) - 1 thousandth or 10-3
micro (μ) - 1 millionth or 10-6
nano (n) - 1 billionth or 10-9

## II. EQUATIONS FOR PHYSICS EXAM

Always

For constant acceleration

Acceleration from free fall

## III. DYNAMICS

Newton's Second Law

Force of kinetic friction

where N is the normal force.
Force of static friction

where N is the normal force.
Centripetal acceleration, points inward (along radius
of circle )

where v is speed of particle and r is radius of the circular
arc traveled by the particle. Centripetal Force = mass x
centripetal acceleration.
Newton's Law of Gravitation

where , the M's are the
masses of the two bodies and R is the distance between
their centers.
For a constant force, work is given by

where F is the constant force, d is the displacement and
θ is the angle between the F and d vectors.

Work Energy Principle

where KE = Kinetic Energy = (1/2)mv^2
Force from spring

where x is the displacement from equilibrium and k is the
spring constant.
Potential energies for conservative forces

Work by a conservative force

If only conservative forces,

Momentum

Newton's second Law in terms of momentum

For constant angular acceleration

Relation to linear motion

Torque

Moment of Inertia

Rotational Kinetic energy

Angular momentum

Newton's second law

Conditions for equilibrium

Density

Pressure

Pressure at depth h in fluid

Atmospheric Pressure Pascal
Equation of continuity

Bernoulli Equation

Frequency and Period

Period of spring

Period of Pendulum

Wave velocity

Sound Intensity

where
Doppler Effect

## IV. ELECTRIC FORCE AND FIELDS

Force between two point charges q1 and q2

where direction is given by repulsion or attraction of
the charges. I am fine if you use the approximation of

Electric field of a point charge q

Electric fields relation to Electric force

Electric Potential at any point in space defined as electric potential energy per unit charge

Inside a uniform electric field, the change in potential is given by

where E is the electric field and d is the distance traveled in the uniform field.
For a point charge

Capacitance

For Parallel Plates

Where is given by the relation

In the presence of a dielectric with a dielectric constant
, the value of is replaced by
Energy stored in a capacitor

Ohm's Law

V is potential difference in Volts , I is current in Amps,
and R is resistance in Ohms which is denoted by Ω.
For a material,

where is the resistivity and L is the length of wire
and A is the cross sectional area.
Temperature dependence

Power

AC Current

Root mean square values

Power in AC circuit

Kircho ' s rules
1. Current into a junction = current out of a junction.
2. Total change in potential around closed loop = 0

SI Units for magnetic field Tesla , also sometimes see
Gauss where 104 Gauss = 1 Tesla
Force on electric current in a magnetic field

Force on moving charge in a magnetic field,

Magnetic field from a long straight wire

Induced electromotive force

Transformer equation

velocity of light = c

Law of Reflection:

Snell's Law or Law of Refraction

For mirrors and thin lenses:

Magnification

focal length for mirror

Interference:
Light interference gives a maxima when the waves have a
total difference of an integer number of wavelength . It is
a minimum when the waves have a half-integer difference.

Wavelength in medium:

where is the wavelength in a vacuum.
Double Slit:
Path difference = d sinθ where d is the separation of
the slits and theta is the angle to the screen position
measured from between the slits.
For constructive

For destructive

Single slit:
Diffraction minima are located at d where n
is an integer.

Reflection on thin films, if the light bounces o of a
higher n material, a phase change of 1/2 λ occurs.

Magnifying glass

for relaxed eye, N=near point of the eye, for adults
approx 25 cm.

for eye focused at the near point
Telescope

Microscope

is approximately