English | Español

Try our Free Online Math Solver!

Online Math Solver

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Please use this form if you would like
to have this math solver on your website,
free of charge.


Midterm Review Notes

4 Messerschmitt 3.1, Overview and exmaples

• Organizational Applications [Messerschmitt pp60-72]

– Departmental Applications
supports a single functional dept.
– Enterprise Applications
supports enterprise-wide processes and goals
– Commerce Applications
supports organizations engaging in commercial relationships w/ one another

• Customer Care or Customer Relationship Management (CRM) [see slides]

• Batch transaction processing [see slides]
Transactions are accumulated over a period of time and processed periodically

• On- line Transaction Processing(OLTP) [Messerschmitt 72-73]
Transactions are processed immediately

• Workflow [Messerschmitt 73-75]

• Human Resource Management (HRM) [see assignment #3]

5 Messerschmitt 3.3, Enterprise Applications

• Operations

• Business Transformation (Business Process Re-engineering, [O’Brien Ch2]) [Messerschmitt pp77-78]

• ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) [Messerschmitt pp79-81]

• Decision Support [Messerschmitt pp81]

• Knowledge Management (also in [O’Brien Ch2])

6 Messerschmitt 3.4, Electronic Commerce

• Electronic Commerce [Messerschmitt pp83-89]

• 3 types of e-commerce [Messerschmitt, Table 3.4, pp84]

• 4 steps in a typical e-commerce transaction [Messerschmitt, Table 3.5, pp85]

– Matching Buyers and Sellers
Catalog, Advertising, Intermediary Recommendation
– Negotiating Terms and Conditions
Auction, Fixed Price, Price Discrimination
– Consummation
Order, Fulfillment, Payment
– Customer Service

• Consumer Commerce (B2C)
eg. Amazon

• Inter-consumer Commerce (C2C)
eg. eBay

• Inter-enterprise Commerce (B2B) [Messerschmitt, pp92-95]

– Procurement
one enterprise purchases goods/services from another
* Direct Procurement [Messerschmitt, Table 3.7, pp92]
obtain raw materials/parts that are directly incorporated into products and service ongoing,
consistent and scheduled procurement focusing on long-term supply relationship
* Indirect Procurement [Messerschmitt, pp 95]
sporadic purchase of goods and services to support organizational objectives

– Supply chain Management (SCM)
– Mass Customization
eg. Dell, integrating business logistics.
– Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
replace paper invoices and purchase orders, together with FEDI (Financial EDI) automated
existing inter-enterprise business processes.

• Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
find users w/ similar interests/purchases/visits recommend products based on similarities between
customers

• Intermediaries
the role of intermediaries in e-commerce, B2C/C2C/B2B

7 Messerschmitt 4, Information Technology

• Data vs. Information [Messerschmitt pp108-112]

– Data
BIT ( BInary digiT ): 0/1 Data: collection of bits
– Information

* text, numbers , as well as other media.
* From application perspective, Information is defined from user’s perspective as patterns
or meaning that influence the user in some recognizable way.
* Within the context of Information Technology, Information is defined more narrowly, as
”structure and interpretation added to data ”.

• Information represented as data

– Information → Data : Representation
– Data → Information : Data Processing
Data processing is based on presumed structure and interpretation imposed on data, otherwise
the information could not be recover (at least correctly ) from the data.

• Regeneration

– Make a precise copy of the data (copy bit by bit). If the structure and interpretation (so-called
”Representation”) is known, then the information is actually replicated as well along w/ the
data
– Several implications (see slides)

8 Messerschmitt 4.3, System Architecture

• System/Subsystem

– System: a composition of subsystems that cooperate to accomplish some purpose
– Subsystem: an element within the system that performs some well-defined action on behalf of
that system

• System Architecture Elements [Messerschmitt pp115, Table 4.2]

– Decomposition: partitioning the whole system
– Functionality: specialized capabilities assigned to each subsystem
– Interaction: subsystems cooperate together to support the system’s goal

• Why architect systems in this way?

– Divide & conquer reduce complexity
– Reuse components
– In accordance w/ industry structure, etc.

• Emergence [Messerschmitt pp116]
Higher- order behavior emerges because the subsystems are composed.

9 Messerschmitt 4.4, Networked Computing Infrastructure

• Infrastructure Software Layering [Messerschmitt pp120-121, Figure 4.7]

• What is the benefit of architecting software with layers?

– Achieves additional capacity by incrementally adding to a specific layer without affect other
layers.
– The implementation of one layer is hidden from all other layers.
– Both of the above simplify the initial design and implementation ( Divide and Conquer ) and
further expansion.

Operating System
Hide equipment details from layers above

• Middleware
– Sits between Application/Operating System.
– Isolating an application partitioned across hosts from differences among various operating
systems of their host.
– Hide OS details from applications.

• File System

– File

* A collection of data managed for the benefit of the application
* Size known, structure & interpretation is unspecified (which depends on the corresponding
application)

– A file system is part of every OS.
– Provides standard services related to files, such as creating, accessing, etc.

• Database Management System

– Database: a file containing interrelated data w/ specific predefined structure
– DBMS: manage multiple databases , basis of OLTP

• Network Functions [Messerschmitt pp122]
Allows hosts (computers connect to network) to communicate authorization/authentication; Message
↔ packets.

10 Messerschmitt 4.5, The Internet

• internet
“Inter-connected networks”, a network of networks standard ways to interconnect networks

• Internet
A specific internet the major global internet

• intranet private internet, for exclusive use within an enterprise

• extranet

– Composed of intranets connected through an unprotected domain (typically the Internet)
– Using encryption and other security technologies to protect confidentiality

11 Case Studies

Please read the case studies in the Reader and summarize answers for those question by yourself.

Frito-Lay Case

• What was the HHC?
Hand Held Computer, for each salesperson to carry around, log sale transaction data

• *What are the benefits of the HHC project?
Improve accounting; Reduce paper work; Segmentation and Miro-marketing; Replace optical scanners
(stopped support by IBM).

• What were the main reasons why Frito Lay deployed the HHC?

• What changes in marketing strategy did Frito-Lay believe the HHC data would help enable?
Micro-marketing (manage small brands, negotiate shelf space)

• How might the HHC project change Frito-Lay’s competitive position with its direct competitors,
new entrants, and its customers?

Cisco ERP

• What are some of the actions that Cisco took that contributed to the successful deployment of their
ERP?
Top personnel, cross-functional group; Consulting KPMG; Locate “hungry” vendors; Priority management
policy; Rapid Iterative Prototyping.

• What mistakes did Cisco make?
Poor testing strategy; Inadequate hardware (yet, they’ve got a favorable hardware contract); Substantial
modifications later, more requirements than the vanilla version supported.

• What are the most important lessons that another company that wants to deploy ERP could learn
from Cisco’s experience?

Alibris Case

• How did Alibris plan to change Interloc’s revenue model?
Eliminate the listing fee of Interloc, yet, mark-up the price of the books.

• What were the potential benefits and risks of this change?

• How did Alibris plan to avoid becoming dis-intermediated?
More quality control; Order fulfillment facility.

• Why did Alibris abandon Thunderstone software, and why did it choose to switch Oracle?

• What made Alibris’ IT challenge particularly difficult compared to what other E-commerce companies
faced?
 

Prev Next